Moody's Corporation was founded in 1909. The Company is a provider of credit ratings, credit and economic related research, data and analytical tools, software solutions and related risk management services, quantitative credit risk measures, financial services training and certification services and outsourced research and analytical services to institutional customers. The Company operates in two segments; MIS and MA. The MIS segment is comprised of all of the Company's ratings operations. The MIS segment consists of five lines of business, which includes CFG, SFG, FIG, PPIF and MIS Other. MIS publishes credit ratings of debt obligations and the entities that issue such obligations in the markets, including various corporate and governmental obligations, structured finance securities and commercial paper programs. The MA segment develops products and services that support financial analysis and risk management activities of institutional participants in financial markets. The MA segment consists of three lines of business, which includes RD&A, ERS and PS. Within its Research, Data and Analytics business, MA distributes research and data developed by MIS as part of its ratings process, including in-depth research on debt issuers, industry studies, and commentary on topical credit related events, and also provides economic research and credit data and analytical tools including quantitative credit risk scores. Within its Enterprise Risk Solutions business, MA provides software solutions and related risk management services. The Company's geographical footprint includes United States and International markets. The MIS segment competes with other CRAs and with investment banks and brokerage firms that offer credit opinions and research. The MA segment competes in the financial information industry against diversified competitors including Thomson Reuters, Bloomberg, S&P Capital IQ, Fitch Solutions, Dun & Bradstreet, IBM, Wolters Kluwer, Sungard, SAS, Fiserv, MSCI and Markit Group among others. MA's main competitors within RD&A includes S&P Capital IQ, CreditSights, Thomson Reuters, Intex, BlackRock Solutions, FactSet and other providers of fixed income analytics, valuations, economic data and research. The Company and its subsidiaries are subject to U.S. federal income tax as well as income tax in state, local and foreign jurisdictions.