What Is Stockholders' Equity?

Read our Advertiser Disclosure.
Contributor, Benzinga
October 5, 2023

One way to better understand a company's financial health and make educated investment decisions is by analyzing stockholders' equity. Stockholders' equity represents the remaining funds that belong to a company's owners after deducting all debts and obligations. It represents the company's net worth from the perspective of its shareholders. This article addresses the question of what is stockholders' equity and discusses its role and impact.

How Does Stockholders Equity Work?

Stockholders' equity is the net worth of a company from the shareholders' perspective, calculated by deducting debts and obligations from total assets. It differs from assets and liabilities, which are resources owned by the company and its obligations to others, respectively. Stockholders' equity represents the percentage of the company's assets financed by its shareholders rather than creditors.

Paid-in capital and retained earnings are the two primary components of stockholders' equity.

Retained Earnings

A company's retained earnings are profits reinvested in the business, indicating its growth potential and financial stability. To calculate retained earnings, subtract expenses from revenues for a given period, factoring in adjustments like stock dividends and changes in accounting policies. Retained earnings impact a company's stockholders' equity, with positive retained earnings indicating more profits than losses thereby increasing equity, and negative retained earnings indicating more losses than profits, leading to a decrease in equity.

Paid-in capital is the amount of money shareholders have invested in a company by purchasing its shares. It comprises the nominal value of a share, also known as par value, plus the excess amount shareholders pay to buy shares. Paid-in capital can rise when a company issues new shares or sells treasury shares at a price higher than their par value, increasing paid-in capital and stockholders' equity.

Conversely, paid-in capital can decrease when a company buys back shares or issues stock options or warrants for less than its par value.

Impact of Treasury Shares

When a company buys back shares from the market, those shares become known as treasury shares. They don't count towards the company's outstanding shares, nor do they grant voting or dividend privileges. Companies might hold onto these shares for various reasons, like decreasing the number of shares in circulation, supporting the share value or using them for employee compensation. However, buying back these shares can reduce a company's paid-in capital and overall equity, while selling them can increase both.

How to Calculate Stockholders' Equity

You can calculate stockholders' equity through book value or market value. The former is more popular because of its simplicity and consistency. It involves subtracting total liabilities from total assets using the balance sheet. 

The market value approach relies on the current market price of shares, which reflects the company's true value in the eyes of investors. To use this method, subtract total liabilities from the market capitalization obtained by multiplying the number of shares by the current share price. The market-to-book ratio gauges the difference between the book and market values of equity. A high ratio means investors have high expectations for growth and profitability, and a low ratio indicates low expectations or undervaluation. 

Importance of Stockholders' Equity

Stockholders' equity is a crucial measure of a company's financial stability. It indicates the portion of assets that belongs to shareholders instead of creditors. A high stockholders' equity means the company has more resources to finance its growth, attract investors and increase credibility and confidence in the market. This strength reduces the company's risk of insolvency and allows for potential investments in profitable projects. Retained earnings are reinvested in the business, not distributed as dividends, allowing for long-term returns.

Stockholders' Equity vs. Market Value

The term book value of the stock is sometimes used interchangeably with stockholders' equity. However, it's important to note that stockholders' equity, based on a company's accounting records, may not reflect its true market value. Factors like supply and demand, earnings, growth, competition, innovation, reputation and expectations determine a company's market value. A higher market value than book value suggests investors have high expectations for the company's future, while a lower market value implies the opposite.  

Factors Influencing Stockholders' Equity

Stockholders' equity can fluctuate because of internal and external factors. Internal factors are those within the control of the company and its management. They include:

  • Issuing new shares: When a company issues new shares, it boosts its paid-in capital and, consequently, its stockholders' equity. Share issuance provides companies with the funds to pursue growth and expansion. The downside is that it may also dilute existing shareholders' ownership and earnings per share.
  • Buying back shares: A company's purchase of its own shares can decrease its paid-in capital and stockholders' equity. Although repurchases may boost share price and earnings per share, they can also limit the company's financial flexibility and liquidity.
  • Selling treasury shares: Selling treasury shares can boost a company's paid-in capital and stockholders' equity, generating cash and enhancing financial ratios. It may also lead to increased shares in circulation, which could reduce earnings per share.
  • Paying dividends: Dividends paid by a company can lower its retained earnings and stockholders' equity, potentially impacting its ability to reinvest and grow. Paying dividends can reward shareholders and entice new investors.
  • Earning net income or incurring net loss: Profit can boost a company’s stockholders' equity and pave the way for growth and profitability. However, this may also result in higher tax liabilities and fiercer competition. By contrast, if a company suffers a loss, its reputation and performance may suffer, yet it may also present opportunities for innovation and improvement.
  • Financial decisions by management: Management decisions can impact a company's financial performance and position. For instance, investing in new projects or acquiring assets can increase assets and liabilities. Selling or disposing of existing assets or paying off debts can decrease assets and liabilities.

External factors are beyond the company's and its management's control. They include:

  • Economic conditions: Because of the impact on the demand and supply of goods and services, a robust economy can propel a company's sales and profits, whereas a sluggish economy can hamper them.
  • Industry trends: Industry changes can impact a company's competitiveness and appeal. A company can benefit greatly from industry growth but may face challenges and uncertainties in a decline.

Role of Stockholders' Equity in Decision-Making

Investors, lenders and analysts use stockholders' equity to inform their investment and lending decisions regarding a company.

  • Investors: Stockholders' equity is a key metric for investors as it indicates the value they can expect to gain from owning a share in the company. Investors can assess the return and risk of their investment and compare different companies in the same industry or sector to identify the most promising investment opportunities.
  • Lenders: Lenders consider stockholders' equity as an indicator of the company's ability to repay debts and meet obligations. It helps them assess creditworthiness, solvency and the availability of collateral for securing loans. They can also determine the interest rate and lending terms based on the company's stockholders' equity.
  • Analysts: Stockholders' equity showcases a company's resource management and value generation for its shareholders. Analysts use it to gauge profitability, efficiency, growth and valuation, and it can also help forecast future performance and potential.

Example of Stockholders Equity in Real Life

Microsoft purchased Nuance Communications in 2022 for $19.7 billion, acquiring their conversational AI and cloud-based clinical intelligence services for healthcare providers. Microsoft paid $56 per share in an all-cash transaction, partly because of Nuance's strong balance sheet with a stockholders' equity of $1.6 billion as of Sept. 30, 2021. Microsoft anticipated that the acquisition would boost its earnings per share by 2024.

Stockholders' Equity: A Key Indicator of Company's Value

Stockholders' equity is a vital metric to gauge a company's financial well-being and value for its shareholders. After accounting for debts and obligations, it represents the company's net worth and ownership stake. Investors, lenders and analysts must understand the components, calculation methods and factors influencing stockholders' equity to enable them to make sound judgments In real-world scenarios, such as major mergers like Exxon Mobil and Chevron. Stockholders' equity can be a key indicator of a company's stability, growth potential and ability to attract investments.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q

What is an example of a stockholders’ equity?

A

An example of a stockholders’ equity is if a company has 300 million in assets and 200 million in liabilities, then the total stockholder’s equity is 100 million.

Q

What goes in stockholders' equity on the balance sheet?

A

The stockholders’ equity section of a balance sheet includes share capital, representing the shareholder’s investment, retained earnings from the company’s profits over time and treasury stock or the amount of shares repurchased by the company.

Q

What is the main purpose of the stockholders’ equity statement?

A

The stockholders’ equity statement informs financial statement users, such as investors and analysts, about equity-related activity. It aids in evaluating the company’s financial ratios, fund sources and uses and overall financial progress.