St Jude Medical Inc was incorporated in Minnesota in 1976. It develops, manufactures and distributes cardiovascular medical devices for the cardiac rhythm management, cardiovascular and atrial fibrillation therapy areas and neurostimulation medical devices for the management of chronic pain. The Company's two segments are the Implantable Electronic Systems Division and the Cardiovascular and Ablation Technologies Division. The Company's principal products in each business unit are as follows: Implantable Electronic Systems Division (IESD) - tachycardia implantable cardioverter defibrillator systems (ICDs), bradycardia pacemaker systems (pacemakers) and neurostimulation products (spinal cord and deep brain stimulation devices); and Cardiovascular and Ablation Technologies Division (CATD) - vascular products (vascular closure products, pressure measurement guidewires, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging products, vascular plugs and other vascular accessories), structural heart products (heart valve replacement and repair products and structural heart defect devices) and atrial fibrillation (AF) products (electrophysiology (EP) introducers and catheters, cardiac mapping, navigation and recording systems and ablation systems). Implantable Electronic Systems Division (IESD): IESD is focused on the cardiac rhythm management and neuromodulation therapy areas. Cardiac rhythm management devices include ICDs that provide life-saving therapy to patients suffering from lethal heart conditions, such as sudden cardiac arrest; cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices to save and improve the lives of patients suffering from heart failure (HF); pacemakers to help patients whose hearts beat too slowly or who suffer from other debilitating cardiac arrhythmias; leads (wires that connect devices to the heart) to carry electrical impulses to the heart and provide information from the heart to the device; and programmers and remote monitoring equipment which are used by physicians and healthcare professionals to program is cardiac rhythm management devices and analyze device data to improve patient management. Neuromodulation product offerings provide neurostimulation treatment in which an implantable device delivers electrical current directly to targeted nerve sites. The Company's commercialized neurostimulation therapies include spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for the treatment of chronic pain, deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treating the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) for the treatment of chronic migraine headache. A neurostimulation system typically consists of four components: a pulse generator that produces the electrical current and is implanted under the patient's skin; implanted leads that carry the electrical impulses to the targeted nerve sites; an external patient remote control that enables the patient to control his or her therapy within prescribed ranges; and an external clinician programmer that is used to program the implant with individualized therapy for the patient. ICDs and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) devices treat patients with hearts that beat inappropriately fast, a condition known as tachycardia. ICDs monitor the heartbeat and deliver high energy electrical impulses, or "shocks," to treat potentially lethal, abnormally fast heart rhythms (ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF)). The Company competes against two principal tissue heart valve manufacturers - Edwards Lifesciences Corporation (Edwards Lifesciences) and Medtronic - as well as many other smaller manufacturers.