Parexel International Corp was incorporated in 1983. The Company provides clinical research, medical communications, consulting, commercialization and informatics and technology services to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device industries. The Company has three reporting segments: Clinical Research Services (CRS), PAREXEL Consulting and Medical Communications Services (PCMS), and Perceptive Informatics (Perceptive). CRS constitutes its core business and include all phases of clinical research from first-in-man trials, where a medicinal entity is tested on human subjects for the first time, through post-marketing studies, following approval by the presiding regulatory body. CRS service offerings include clinical trials management, observational studies, patient/disease registries and post-marketing surveillance, data management and biostatistics, epidemiology and health economics/outcomes research, clinical logistics, pharmacovigilance, and clinical pharmacology, as well as related medical affairs, patient recruitment, and investigator site services. PCMS provides technical expertise and advice in such areas as drug development, regulatory affairs, and good manufacturing practice (GMP) compliance consulting. In addition, PCMS provides a full spectrum of market development, product development, commercialization, and targeted communications services in support of product launch. PCMS consultants also identify alternatives and propose solutions to address clients' product development, registration, and commercialization issues. Additionally, PCMS provides reimbursement and market access (RMA) services. Perceptive provides information technology solutions designed to improve clients' product development processes. Perceptive's portfolio of products and services includes ClinPhone RTSM, medical imaging services, CTMS, EDC, web-based portals, systems integration, and patient diary applications. These solutions are sold individually or in combination, as elements of an eClinical suite. It competes with other biopharmaceutical services companies and other clinical research organizations (CROs) that provide one or more of the services being offered by it. Some of the biopharmaceutical services companies, such as Quintiles Transnational Corporation, Covance Inc., Pharmaceutical Product Development Inc., inVentiv Health, INC Research, and Icon plc, offer services that compete directly with its services at many levels.