Icon PLC was incorporated in 1990. The Company is a contract research organization that provides outsourced development services to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device industries. The Company organized, operated and assessed its business in two segments, the clinical research segment and the central laboratory segment. The Clinical Research business specializes in the planning, management, execution and analysis of Phase I - IV clinical trials, ranging from small studies to complex, multinational projects. It also conduct various laboratory tests on the patient's blood, urine and other bodily fluids at appropriate intervals during the trial Specific clinical research services. The Company provides laboratory services through its central laboratory business, which includes the Company's central laboratories located in Dublin, New York, India, Singapore and China. The Company's areas of operation outside of Ireland include the United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, Turkey, Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Israel, Romania, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Peru, India, China, South Korea, Japan, Thailand, Taiwan, Singapore, The Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. The Company's principal competitors are Covance Inc., PAREXEL International Corporation, Pharmaceutical Product Development Inc., Quintiles Transnational Corporation, inVentiv Health , PRA and INC Research.