Hardringe Inc was incorporated in New York in 1890. The Company is a designer, manufacturer and distributor of machine tools, specializing in precision computer numerically controlled metal-cutting machines. The Company supplies precision computer controlled metal-cutting turning machines, grinding machines, vertical machining centers, and accessories related to those machines. Turning machines, or lathes, are power-driven machines used to remove material from either bar stock or a rough-formed part by moving multiple cutting tools against the surface of a part rotating at very high speeds in a spindle mechanism. Hauser machines are jig grinders used to make demanding contour components, primarily for tool and mold-making applications. Tschudin product technology is focused on the specialized grinding of cylindrical parts when the customer requires high volume production. The Company's Tschudin machines are generally equipped with automatic loading and unloading mechanisms for the part being machined. The Company's machines are generally computer controlled and use commands from an integrated computer to control the movement of cutting tools, grinding wheels, part positioning, and in the case of turning and grinding machines, the rotation speeds of the part being shaped. The computer control enables the operator to program operations such as part rotation, tooling selection, and tooling movement for a specific part and then stores that program in memory for future use. The Company offers various warranties on its equipment and considers post-sale support to be a critical element of its business. Services provided include operation and maintenance training, in-field maintenance, and in-field repair. The Company offers these post-sales support services on a paid basis throughout the life of the machine. In territories covered by distributors, this support and service is offered through the distributor. The Company sells its products in most of the industrialized countries of the world through a combination of distributors, agents and manufacturers' representatives. In certain areas of the United States, China, Germany, and the United Kingdom, it has also used a direct sales force. The Company's operations are subject to extensive federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to environmental matters.