Express Scripts Holding Co was incorporated in the State of Delaware on July 15, 2011 as Aristotle Holding, Inc. It operates as a Pharmacy benefit management in North America. It includes HMOs, health insurers, third-party administrators, employers, union-sponsored benefit plans, workers' compensation plans and government health programs. It helps health benefit providers address access and affordability concerns resulting from rising drug costs while helping to improve healthcare outcomes. It works with clients, manufacturers, pharmacists and physicians to increase efficiency in the drug distribution chain, to manage costs in the pharmacy benefit and to improve members' health outcomes and satisfaction. The Company supports healthier outcomes by applying science to health decisions. It offers solutions in four areas namely benefit choices, drug choices, pharmacy choices and health choices. Health Decision ScienceSM is the Company's approach to understand and improve the decisions that impact clinical and financial outcomes and applies principles and knowledge from three disciplines: behavioral sciences, clinical specialization and actionable data. These disciplines form a powerful combination that seeks to increase the likelihood of healthier decisions and healthier outcomes. Consumerology(r), or the application of the behavioral sciences to healthcare, optimizes decision mechanisms and helps make decisions easier. Therapeutic Resource CentersSM gives patients access to specialist pharmacists and nurses to close gaps in care. It has organized its operations into two business segments based on products and services offered PBM and Business Operations. The Company's PBM segment consists services such as the retail network pharmacy administration, home delivery pharmacy services, benefit design consultation, drug utilization review, drug formulary management, clinical solutions to improve health outcomes, such as adherence, case coordination and personalized medicine, flexible array of Medicare Part D, Medicaid and Health Insurance Marketplace offerings to support clients' benefits, specialty pharmacy, including the distribution of fertility pharmaceuticals requiring special handling or packaging, administration of a group purchasing organization and consumer health and drug information. The Business Operations segment consists of distribution of pharmaceuticals and medical supplies to providers and clinics and scientific evidence to guide the safe, effective and affordable use of medicines. The Company is subject to federal and state laws and regulations.